The journal Shine Toli is published quarterly by the Political Education Academy. PEA is a nongovernmental organization that receives an annual appropriation from the Konrad Adenauer Foundation, Germany from a grant-making program to support the strengthening of democratic process in the Mongolia. The Shine Toli, which is supported by PEA, has an independent editorial board that advises the editor in setting editorial policy.
From this volume we present to you summary of the essays.
The publication of the lecturer of the PEA B. Altansukh on Civilian Society and Its Enemy is about some factors slowing the development of the genuinely democratic society in the countries of the transition. The authors’ point is that these factors are due to the lack of an opportunity for citizens to take an independent decision and to act following its decision. He suggested, that it is not enough to talk about liberal democratic models, a democratic society's goals will be not achieved without the elements of the civilian society, where individuals are the active participants, are being guaranteed. Hence, the rejecting of the latter can be recognised as an action to give up from the democratic choice and accommodating a danger of excessive centralisation and dominance of the one political parties interest over the social well-being.
The article by J. Zolmaa employee of the PEA, titled the Voluntary Work is One of Civilization Participation Type, is presented what we understand about voluntary works which are special characteristic of civil society today, assumed how to support and evaluate them, and highlighted the Government policy which is supporting civil participation. The author has suggested her opinion on possible activities to support the voluntary works in a case of our country and mentioned that it is extremely important to provide a pleasant environment, which may support civilisation participation as a whole. Moreover, she illustrates the experience of Germany, where they have long time tradition of democracy, how to use ability of citizen for society purpose in the article.
The article by Dr. Joachim Detjen, Catholic University, Eichstдtt, Germany on Paradigm for Democratic education: interested watchers – citizens being ready to intervene - active citizens deals with the model of democratic education as the primary goal of political education. First, he defines the different responsibilities that a democratic system requires from its citizens. It has to be distinguished between cognitive, procedural and habitual responsibility. Furthermore, he deals with empirical data on political participation and their evaluation. He determines a decrease in conventional participation and an increase in unconventional forms of participation by minorities. He also stresses that neither does a low poll pose a threat to democracy, nor does a high number of members in political parties is not necessary component of a functioning democracy. With reference to empirical data he discusses the passivity of citizens and the underlying causes. Finally, he emphasizes that a low poll or participation is not necessarily negative for the democratic order, as long as the citizens support the democracy as such. It is important that democracy is understood by the people. The primary problem is – according to Dr. Detjen – the lack of comprehension. In the last section of his speech, he discusses the consequences for the political education. In doing so, he distinguishes 4 different types of citizens: 1. politically disinterested, ignorant citizens, 2. politically well-informed and interested to a limited extent, but passive citizens, 3. citizens that are able and willing to participate for occasional participation, 4. highly interested, constantly engaged and experienced citizens. He sees the necessity to extend the model of political education – the citizen of the 3rd and 4th category – towards the citizen of the 2nd degree, because only few people would reach this high level of political participation. It should be the goal of political education to create an interest in politics, a basic knowledge about political institutions and procedures and to train the ability of political judgment in order to change the inexperienced and often uninterested citizen into an interested observer. Finally, he warns of too high expectations with regard to political education.
The leader of the Women Leadership Foundation M. Bolormaa published a publication Women in Politics. The work analyses women’s participation in political life of Mongolia, main causes of low sex ratio of women in decision-making level and opportunities of future success for them. It, also, introduces readers to the historic achievements of women in gaining a political freedom worldwide and the historic evidences of women right movement in Mongolia.
The article is a part of the book: Euro-Asian geopolitics and international affair: present and future, written by D. Bayarkhuu. Mongolia is located in the heart of Asia, and land locked country, which is historically bordering two big countries in the world: Russia and China. According to the geography and geopolitics, Mongolia could be a part of the North east of Asia or Central Asia. With concerns of the civilisation, Mongolia has been getting in boundary of three different types of civilisation. Therefore by the geography and geopolitics, Mongolia has such interesting location and there is no other country with a nomadic life and Buddhist relation in the world. Also, the author writes that the interest of an attraction to Mongolia for foreigners is deeply related to above-mentioned factors.
The article by Kh. Monkhtsetseg, MA in history The Political and Independence Activities of Erdene Jinon Van Ts. Shirnendamdin is discussed about a biography of Erdene Jinon Van Ts. Shirnendamdin, was one of the best diplomats with political education, who had participated actively to the political life of Mongolia in the beginning of XX century and had effectively tried to approve an independence of Mongolia by neighbouring countries. In particular, there is mentioned he participated one of Government official delegations of Mongolia to visit to Russian Monarchy in 1912, and he worked as an ambassador of Mongolia to make three countries’ contract during the conspiracy of Russia and China in 1915, and also he conducted the activities of foreign policy and preparation of People’s Revolution Victory.
On the paper by Ts. Oyunchimeg, the senior lecturer of the Department of Legislation, the Academy of Management titled Time of Civil Legislation, due diligence of a participant for civil legislation affair and legal entity within law or contract term is providing the stable and certain civil legislation affair in terms of time. There is required to determine a moment that time period is beginning, changing and lasting. The author presented how to use time category in civil legislation affair for this purpose. She explained to improve discipline of entities that is a user of the legislation and to protect right of entities who have function to fulfil the legislation based on the certain articles of the Civil Law.
The article of the lecturer of the PEA B. Altansukh on The Reform of German Pension System introduces historic development of the German pension system to the readers. The article attracts views on the challenges of the state public policy in the face of globalisation to balance strengthening of the economies competitiveness, improve social welfare of the nation and widen the opportunities of the private sector development. The article also addresses necessity of the systematic approach to the problem of ageing and the following financial difficulties resulted in the public policy to be future oriented and consistently planned.
In this issue, in line with our tradition, we present to you the essays of the winners of the annual competition of the research essay “Eureka” in History and Humanity, organised by the Mongolian Youth Federation and Mongolian Youth Leadership Foundation.
Mr. D. Purevjav MA research fellow of the Institute of Philology, the Academy of Science of Mongolia win the award of the best essay. In his essay The Trace and Analysis of the Letter Inherit in Eastern and Western Literature, the researcher emphasis on the Letter note written by Jaroslav Vsevolodich the son the tsar Vladimir known as Daniel Zatochnik in 1190s. The essay presents detailed analysis of the Letter as an intermediate between the principle teaching poetry, popular in Russian literature by that time and the Letter note. Comparisons of the Letter were conducted with the selected traditional Mongolian literature such as Oyun Tulhuur, Messages of State Teacher Pagva lama to the Nomgon Khaan, the Fourth Son of Khubilai Khaan, and The State Prospects of the Zanaga Khaan. The Essay concluded that there are similarities in the way of using identification, comparison, representation and ridicules in fairy.
The best essay award winner among the students E. Munkhchimeg, the second grade student of the School of Computer Science and Management of the Mongolian University of the Technical Science, presented the essay The Future Prospect of the Fax Messages in the Social Communication. The essay reveals advantages and disadvantages of the fax messages in social life with the chronics of the technical developments, innovations and its innovators. There is an interesting attempt to analyse the specific of the fax message, its use, and the market factors influencing to the fax and trend in the development of the factors using examples of various countries. An interesting point of the essay is authors emphasis on the possibility of transferring pay cheques via fax and use of the computer graphic technique.
The competition award winner among the students L. Munkhbayar, the fourth grade student of the History and Archaeology of the Ulaanbaatar University, presented the essay The First Date Issue of the Mongolian Archaeology Investigation. The archaeological expedition led by Russian scientist N. M. Jadrintseiv in 1889 was registered as the first archaeological expedition in territory of Mongolia and beginning of the archaeological investigation of the country, according to the History of Mongolian Peoples Republic published in 1954. But it was also known that there is not enough information about the success of the investigation. In the part of the research, where detailed description of the reason, the goal, the role of organising an expedition and the members of the research team analysed the author includes result of his study of the N. M. Jadrintseiv's report. The study result shows that Jadrintseiv's team found some of the sites, including the Hadaasan and Kharbalgas ruins, as it were located by Paderin. So, it points to the possibility of renewing the date of the first archaeological investigation in Mongolia, as Paderin's investigation was before the Jadrintseiv's one. Moreover, Paderin's investigation first located Hadaasan and Kharbalgas ruins and following expedition was organised (Jadrintseiv's) on the basis of the observations.
The competition award winner among the students U. Baatarkhuu, the third grade student of the Applied Mathematics of Khan Uul University and the third grade student of the Politics Study of the National University of Mongolia, presented the essay on The Application of the Mathematics in Optimal Decision Making in Politics. The essay highlights the use of the mathematics, econometrics and statistics techniques in combination with the traditional methods in political sciences. The aim of the research is to show how to make an optimal decision, how to weigh a benefit in the optimal choice problem, how to use mathematics in these decisions and how a member's opinion influences to the team decision. The author touches various sophisticated problems of the election from the mathematics point of view and concluded that there is no ”follow up” effects on election.